Looking for Videos of performances? The search box below will help you find if we have a DVD or a Video of a performance in this library:
SEARCH THE LIBRARY'S MEDIA COLLECTION (DVD & VHS)
Naxos includes CDs available for live streaming via the Internet
Alexander Street Press includes video streaming channels as well as audio streaming channels. This link lets you search them all!
Catalogs for recorded sound & video collections
Library of Congress Recorded Sound Reference Center
British Library Sound Archive Catalogue
Televised Opera and Musical Comedy Database
National Jukebox The Library of Congress presents the National Jukebox, which makes historical sound recordings available to the public free of charge. The Jukebox includes recordings from the extraordinary collections of the Library of Congress Packard Campus for Audio Visual Conservation and other contributing libraries and archives.
Live Music Archive is a community committed to providing the highest quality live concerts in a lossless, downloadable format.
Grooveshark Excellent source for popular music. Allows users to send links to individual tracks and customized playlists via email to other users. The person sending the links, and creating the playlists, must have a (free for now) account, but the recipients do not have to be members.
Websites by Category
Here are just a few examples to get you started with using the Internet for academic research. Remember that there will be many other useful sites out there on the Internet!
Search Engines specifically to find scores
Sheet music databases downloads for a fee
Musicnotes Download Sheet Music. From $5.25. With Over 110,000 Available Songs.
Art Song Transpositions--in case your song can't be found in the right key, this website publishes professional, exquisitely crafted editions of songs in any key. Fill out the request form below and we'll email you a price quote and estimated delivery date. Titles start as low as $4.95, which includes your song in one transposed key. For each additional key requested, there's an extra $.50 charge. Songs are delivered in PDF form. In case we don't have access to the song, we'll ask you to email us a copy. 24-hour rush orders are available.
MusRef A Guide to More than 8,000 Print and Internet Resources about music and dance.
Musicals and Musical Theatre
Internet Broadway Database records of productions from the beginnings of New York theater until today.
Lortel Archives--The Internet Off-Broadway Database also known as www.IOBDB.com (Internet Off-Broadway Database) provides a catalogue of shows produced Off-Broadway.
Guide to Musical Theater fascinating site that includes numerous details about all musical productions.
ASCAP's Ace on the web Database of song titles, composers, lyricists, performers, and publishers. Includes publishers' addresses.
Choral Public Domain Library is an archive of choral sheet music and includes a wiki with texts and translations of the availble works.
Music Theory Assistance
Good Ear = ear training help.
Musicards = intensely helpful music theory flash cards!
Music Theory and History Online = basics of notation, meter, rhythm, chord structures and more!
MusicTheory.net = free tools for learning music theory with ear training too!
Teoria—Music Theory Web = award winning tutorials on all aspects of music theory
Band Music PDF Complete settings for bands of today, including full scores and parts
The Full English a digital archive of approximately 44,000 records and 58,400 digitized images, all available freely online. The site documents folk music culture in England during the early 20th century. While it doesn’t provide any song recordings, what it does include are thousands of transcriptions of music and lyrics of folk songs from all across England, transcribed and compiled by notable song collectors, folklorists, and composers, including the likes of Percy Grainger, Cecil Sharpe, and Ralph Vaughan Williams. The Full English also includes correspondence and notebooks that paint a compelling picture of this community of scholars and musicians.
New York Philharmonic Dgital Archive The New York Philharmonic Digital Archives houses multiple score and part collections, including those of Leonard Bernstein and Andre Kostelanetz as well as the oldest items of the Philharmonic's own music library which dates back to the founding of the Orchestra in 1842.
Musica International MUSICA is currently a choral documentary search tool as well as a pedagogic tool for conductors, musicologists, schools of music, musical federations, music stores, and other organisations. It is also ideal for amateurs and those who wish to know more about the choral music repertoire. It fits perfectly as a database to manage a choral music library in a cooperative way with other libraries. It is a necessary tool for choral conductors, just like a tuning fork or pitch pipe.
MUSICA seeks to gather information on all choral music of the world and compile it into a single research tool. It is an international project and the database is therefore multilingual (French, German, English and Spanish), containing over 160,000 references (as of November 2010). This represents dozens of year-men of work. Its evolution into a virtual multimedia library is well underway. However, this work will take many years, and the contribution of volunteers from the world's choral community is necessary in order to quicken the pace towards completion.
Musical Treasures Consortium provides online access to the world's most valued music manuscripts and print materials, held at the most renowned music archives, in order to further research and scholarship. Researchers can search or browse materials, access metadata about each item, and view digital images of the treasure via each custodial archive's Web site. The consortial collection will grow as members add more materials.
American Federation of Musicians (AFM)
Sigma Alpha Iota International Music Fraternity for Women
Can you think of other categories? Email the music librarian with your suggestions.
The Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies This is a visionary Museum/Library at San Jose State University in San Jose California. One can access information about the American Beethoven Society and the Beethoven Gateway as well as information about interesting exhibits at the Center.
Beethoven Gateway Formerly called the Beethoven Bibliography Database, the purpose of this website is to bring all literature about Beethoven and the related information about the era he lived in under bibliographic control. This is an excellent resource for finding information about Beethoven literature.
The Charles Ives Society, Inc.
Mozart Database The purpose of this web site, operated by the Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum in cooperation with the Packard Humanities Institute, is to make Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart's musical compositions widely and conveniently accessible to the public, for personal study, scholarly and educational use. You can find a digital version of the Neue Mozart Ausgabe (the newest Urtext version of Mozart's collected works)here at this website.
Trained composers enjoy a wide variety of possible career paths, almost all of which involve combining composition with another aspect of music-making. The vast majority of compositional careers blend creative activity with performing, conducting, teaching, administration of music, or other musical (and, in many cases, non-musical) endeavors. All of these contain the potential for fulfilling, satisfying professional careers, and the exact makeup of a given composer's career will differ from composer to composer. So, while there is no definite way of knowing exactly which path you should follow as a composer, here are some examples of typical career paths taken by composers. Ultimately, your own career as a composer will depend upon a large number of elements, and be influenced by many things. What connects all composers, however, is the innate desire to create music, something which goes beyond the particular differences between individual careers.
Ultimately, whatever your career path, you will likely find that your professional career combines many of the endeavors listed below, and will undoubtedly include many not included here, or even not yet invented!
|Be a composer-performer|
|Many composers, by virtue of their musical backgrounds, are performers as well. There are many advantages for the composer who also performs. The most clear advantage is that you, as performer, are in a position to present your own music in the manner in which you intend it to be heard. Such noted composers as Frederic Rzewski, William Bolcom (piano), Steve Reich (percussion), and many others combine careers in performance with those of composition. Additionally, as a composer who performs, you have the opportunity to make friends and contacts among your fellow performers - those who will be performing your music.|
|Be a composer-conductor|
|Although related to the above category of composer-performer, many composers have found the dual career path of composer-conductor to be very advantageous for their careers. Conductors, by the nature of their profession, are able to exercise influence over - in an even broader sense than that of solo or chamber performance - the performances of their works, and many composers have found conducting to be a necessary skill for the promotion of their music. Such composers as John Adams, Pierre Boulez, and Esa-Pekka Salonen follow in the distinguished line of composer-conductors from Hector Berlioz through Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss to Leonard Bernstein.|
|Be a university professor/instructor of composition (and/or another field)|
|A time-honored career path, and one with many advantages for a composer, is that of university teaching. Eligibility for full-time faculty positions, especially in the United States, typically requires the completion of a doctorate in composition. American universities and schools of music traditionally offer two types of composition doctorates: the Doctor of Philosophy (Ph D) degree or the Doctor of Musical Arts (DMA) degree. NB: the latter type has named variants, such as DM or MusD (Doctor of Music).|
|Some of the advantages of a faculty position are that the composer is assured a steady, reliable source of income which is independent of composition. This can be a very helpful aid to take pressure off the composer's creative activity, so that he/she can focus on work which is of interest and artistic value. Many composers who work strictly on a freelance basis are obliged to take the jobs which happen to come in; besides the feast-or-famine nature of this work style, the work can often be artistically unsatisfying, and take time away from more engaging creative activity.|
|Another advantage is the ready availability of a network of colleagues and performers, whether faculty or student, to perform and learn your work. Most university schools of music have either new music ensembles or offer concerts devoted to new music, and the daily coexistence of composers and performers within an academic environment is very conducive to collaborations.|
|Faculty composers are often recipients of grant support from their institutions. Universities invest in their faculty members, and support the professional activities of their artist faculty, because accomplishments by faculty reflect well upon the university, as well. As a result of the fundamental desire to assist and support faculty, universities typically offer grants or fellowships for creative, performance, or recording projects to music faculty. This internal source of funding can serve to make a project possible which might be more difficult, or impossible, without such an institutional sponsor; or, an internal grant can help make a project more attractive to potential external funders, who might give additional money having seen the prior vote of confidence given the project by the composer's own university.|
|Be a music copyist|
|Many composers have begun their careers as music copyists, either on a freelance basis or engaged principally to assist one established composer. A good music copyist, devoted to this specialized and labor-intensive skill, may establish a comfortable living in his/her craft. The hours of such work are long and, as with many freelance jobs, may come in batches of huge amounts of work separated by times of little to no work. Sometimes, a rush job might require sleepless nights of work. However, there are some clear advantages to this. Times of comparatively slow copying work may be devoted to original composition; working closely with an established composer provides immediate and sanctioned access to that composer and, by extension, the network of colleagues, performers, administrators, and others in the music business whom it is helpful for a composer to know. Because of the nature of this work, copyists tend to live in New York or other major metropolitan areas where there is a large amount of work, and where the composer can take advantage of performances and contacts available there.|
|Work as a composer's assistant|
|A species of the copyist job listed above, serving as an established composer's assistant (personal assistant, business manager, or such) may be an excellent way to establish connections in professional circles. While such work means that your own schedule is necessarily secondary to the person employing you, the many fringe benefits (in addition to those listed above, under "copyist") frequently offset these inconveniences, especially for an aspiring composer beginning a career.|
|Be a pianist/music director/dance accompanist/rehearsal pianist|
|There is always need for good pianists who sight-read read music well. If you are a good pianist with strong sight-reading skills, you will find a ready variety and need for your services. Theatrical companies, dance schools and companies, singers and instrumentalists, churches, and many other organizations need music for any number of activities, performances, and enterprises. It is possible to build a strong, varied, and interesting career as a pianist or organist while still finding ample time to compose and develop creatively. An additional benefit of being a working performer is that you continually meet and collaborate with potential performers of your own music!|
|Compose music for video games!|
|In recent years, the complexity and sophistication of video game scores has increased dramatically, offering classical composers extraordinary opportunities for creativity. A recent Washington Post story by music critic Anne Midgette speaks to this trend: "Video-game concerts, a movement that's more than a blip on orchestral landscape" (July 28. 2010).|
|Work at a publishing house or recording company|
|Many composers are employed by large publishing houses, especially for those which publish the work of contemporary composers, because their particular expertise and training in new music gives the composer a sense of discrimination and knowledge of quality. Publishers frequently spend time attending concerts, "scouting" for new talent to employ or engage. As a publishing scout, composers might find this an excellent way to attend concerts, meet composers, and learn about the newest music. Recording companies also seek to employ composers for repertoire selection, curating of their discography, and other important duties.|
|Work in radio|
|Although the number of public-radio stations which perform classical music, let alone new music, are diminishing, there is still room for composers to find work. University-affiliated radio stations (such as WBUR in Boston and WUOL in Louisville) frequently have entire programs devoted to new music, and such stations need composers (or, at least, prefer composers) to select repertoire and work on the shows. NPR (based in Washington, DC) and its local affiliates often have new music, and subscription media such as XM Satellite Radio (also based in Washington, roughly 1 mile from the Catholic University campus!) employ composers. A recent BM Composition graduate worked for a while at XM Radio before continuing on with graduate studies at another prestigious conservatory.|
|Work in software|
|For those with computer and technology skills, there is a great need for trained composers to work on music software programs, whether professional or educational. From notation software programs such as Finale or Sibelius (where composers, with their specialized knowledge of notation, are needed as consultants both in the design and upgrade process) to audio software such as ProTools, Cakewalk, or Sound Forge, to keyboards, MIDI interfaces, software design and programming, composers have much to contribute and are in demand. Educational software for music theory, ear training, or performance-based software, is a growing market with a need for trained musicians. Internet-based media such as iTunes may employ composers, as well.|
|Work for a presenting organization (arts administration)|
|Every symphony orchestra and opera company, as well as many new music, chamber music, and concert series organizations, need knowledgeable people to work for them in their task of presenting concerts. A "presenter" is the general term used for an organization which sponsors, advertises, and funds concerts: thus, institutions such as Lincoln Center, Carnegie Hall, the Kennedy Center are all presenters, as are such organizations as the Brooklyn Academy of Music, the Tanglewood Festival, and the Capital Fringe Festival. All large organizations, particularly those which present new music, or have new music as part of their repertory, benefit from having knowledgeable and trained composers on their staffs. There is room on the "business," or arts administration side of such organizations (which involves marketing, accounting, legal, education, etc.), as well as the artistic side (see below).|
|Work for a symphony orchestra, opera company, theatrical or dance company|
|Composers often work in the artistic side of a presenting organization: for example, they might serve as staff music directors for music theater or opera companies, or as rehearsal pianists, vocal coaches, or conductors for these organizations; as members of the music staff, they may serve on programming committees, helping to select repertoire for future seasons, or serve in artist relations, which involve direct contact with resident and visiting artists. There are many ways in which a composer (especially a composer with performing skills) may participate in, and contribute significantly to, the life of a presenting organization.|
|Work as a music journalist/critic|
|Many composers have found a way to combine their normal concert-going habits with music criticism: although full-time music critic positions are few (and confined mostly to such major newspapers as the New York Times and Washington Post), composers may be asked to attend concert and write reviews as "stringers" - that is, external non-employees engaged on a contract basis (paid for each review). This may be a fulfilling and artistically interesting way not only to attend concerts free of charge (an excellent benefit!), but also to participate in the musical discourse of a city. With the advent of internet publications, there are also many outlets for reviewers to contribute to online journals (such as ion arts).|
|Work for a composer service organization|
|A very important capacity in which composers can work in the field of new music is to work for one of the many composer service organizations, such as the American Composers Forum (based in Minneapolis, but with regional chapters across the USA), the Society of Composers, Inc., or the American Music Center (both based in NYC). These organizations, through grant programs, opportunity lists, and (in some cases) festivals and conferences, seek to promote the music of their member composers, and trained, knowledgeable, and well-connected composers are always desirable employees. Many such organizations may only be able to afford part-time help, but many full-time positions are available.|
|Work in commercial music|
|Every television or radio commercial, every computer start-up system, every cell phone company, and every video game manufacturer needs someone to compose the music (or, in many cases, the motives) for its musical products. Composers may find a surprisingly lucrative career in advertising and commercial music: soundtracks for 30-second commercials pay astonishingly well, and many composers have combined work in commercial music with their own classical work. Advertising companies exist in all major metropolitan areas, but there is a freelance basis to this work, as well.|
|Work in television or film|
|Composers have always found work in television since the medium's inception: networks have "logos," or short jingles identifying them; news broadcasts have theme music, and all sitcoms and documentaries hire composers to create music for them, as well. As with advertising composition, work in TV can be extremely lucrative. Film composition, a genre to which many aspire, offers great financial rewards to those composers at the top of their field, but also is a very demanding discipline in terms of hours of work. Many film composers are confronted with the need to score a feature-length (say, 100-minute) film in less than a week; if the film company employs electronic scores, this is more feasible, but many still employ traditional orchestras, requiring the composer to write very quickly and then (if the film company is large enough) turn over the work to a copyist (see above) for generating score and parts for the performers. Despite this frequently-hectic pace, many composers have had very satisfying careers in film music. (Michael Schelle's book The Score: Interviews with Film Composers, Silman-James Press 1998, provides an interesting set of perspectives on the profession).|
Oklahoma City University
Wanda L. Bass School of Music
Instructions for Preparing The Research Paper for the Master of Music Degree
This guide is designed to give students general information concerning the preparation of the recital paper written in conjunction with the master’s recital in the course MUS 5102—Music Research and Writing.
All theses necessary for partial fulfillment of graduate degrees must be approved by the graduate student’s committee and be submitted to the person designated by the graduate program three weeks before commencement. Exceptions must have prior approval of the program director and dean. Specific thesis requirements include the following:
I. Copies and Library Instructions — At least 4 copies of each recital paper are required.
Two copies need to be deposited in the Dulaney-Browne Library, and one copy must be submitted to the Coordinator of Graduate Studies the final copy goes to the department. Each graduate student must pay a binding fee for each copy of the paper. The Dulaney-Browne Library will bind the copies of the papers, using the same binding, cover, and spine format for all graduate papers (OCU blue with gold type).
II. Paper — All copies of theses will be submitted on letter-size, acid-free, 20-pound, 25 percent rag paper. Type is to be on one side only.
III. Binding — The original copy (not two photocopies) should be bound. (Note: Do not bind rough drafts of the paper. Make sure that the paper is in its final condition before binding.)
IV. Margins — 1 ½ inch left and 1 inch top, bottom, and right margins.
V. Word-Processing — Use only 12-point Times New Roman font. The final copy should be printed using a printer that will produce letter-quality copies. Musical examples should be generated using computer software or may be photocopied and inserted into the text.
VI. Arrangement — Normally, the recital paper will be arranged as follows:
Front matter — use lower case Roman numerals to number all front matter; however, do not print a number on the Title page
2.Approval page (signature page)
3.Table of Contents
4. Preface, Acknowledgement, or Foreword (if any)
5. List of Musical Examples (if any)
6. List of Tables (if any)
7. List of Figures (if any)
8. List of Illustrations (if any)
Text of paper — use Arabic page numbers and print a number on the first page
9. Text (May be subdivided into Introduction, Parts, Chapters, and Sections, as necessary)
Back matter — continue on using Arabic page numbers
VII. Footnotes and Bibliography — The footnotes used in the recital paper are primarily source citation footnotes; however, provided they are used sparingly, substantive comments may also be included in footnotes. Source citation footnotes are used to cite the authority for statements in the text, such as specific facts or opinions as well as exact quotations, and to make cross-references.
Footnotes should be arranged in numerical order at the foot of the page, and all those to which references are made in the text page must appear on the same page as the references to them. Numbering of footnotes will start over at the beginning of each chapter. The acceptable form for footnotes and the bibliography may be found in Kate Turabian’s A Manual for Writers 7th ed. or The Chicago Manual of Style, 15th ed. (2003).
VIII. Text Notes — Be sure to indent and single space long quotations. In this case, do not use quotation marks.
IX. Academic Honesty — In the case of serious, documented violation of the Academic Honesty policy in theses work, a student will be dismissed from the university, subject to normal academic appeals processes.
X. Each student is responsible for completing the Thesis Submission Form, as well as ensuring that each office has provided a signature acknowledging either receipt of the thesis, or receipt of the completed form.
XI. Signatures should be received in the order stipulated on the form, with the Registrar’s Office receiving the final copy of the Thesis Submission Form, which includes all signatures.
XII. Failure to provide the completed form to the Registrar’s Office will delay the posting of the degree and the release of the diploma.
TIMELINE FOR RECITAL PAPER
1. Student and applied teacher determine recital program (48-53 minutes of performing
2. Research topic chosen in consultation with the applied teacher (related in some manner to
the recital program).
3. Recital program and research topic are submitted to the student’s Graduate Committee
for approval; this proposal must include the following: recital program with each
selection (or group) timed and including a total timing for entire program, paper title,
abstract (brief synopsis—a paragraph or two), table of contents or outline, and proposed
4. Recital date is set.
5. Schedule, with the Graduate Coordinator, the Comprehensive Review to occur at least 15 days prior to the recital; according to the University Catalog, the Comprehensive Review “is administered by the student’s Committee…and will take the form of a preview recital and oral examination on the Recital Paper. The…review for the Composition major will take the form of submission of tape recordings of recital rehearsals as well as an oral examination concerning various aspects of the paper project.” This means, therefore, that the paper must be written and in its final draft form at the time of the review. Students must submit the final draft to the committee members at least one week prior to the review.
Some helpful advice:
Matters of academic writing style are the responsibility of the writer. The writer should not depend upon the graduate faculty to correct grammar, spelling, punctuation, footnote or bibliography format, and other such basic components of the paper. The faculty readers reserve the right to return the first draft unread if ten or more errors are found on the first five pages. If students lack confidence in this preparation, they should seek the assistance of the University’s Learning Enhancement Center on the first floor of Dulaney-Browne Library
Become familiar with the format for scholarly work as presented in the above-cited reference works.
Do not “drop in” quotations. Prepare the quotations by including the author’s name (Example: According to musicologist Halsey Stevens, “Bela Bartók...”)
A dash in printing is created on the word-processor by using a double hyphen, preceded and followed by no space.
Inform yourself of parts of speech so that you can capitalize titles correctly: articles, prepositions, “to” used as part of an infinitive, and coordinating conjunctions (“and,” “but,” “or,” “nor,” “for”) are not capitalized.
Spell out the century when referring to an era: “twentieth century;” and hyphenate the two words if they are used as an adjective: “twentieth-century music.” Do not refer to individuals by their first name: Aaron Copland is either “Copland” or “the young Copland”— not “Aaron.”
Please use italics for titles. Use them consistently in your footnotes and bibliography.
A comma is customarily used following the year in dates: “on June 19, 1997, a tornado....”
Titles of large compositions (such as song cycles, musical shows, oratorios, symphonic works) are italicized. Titles of individual movements within these larger works appear within “quotation marks.” (Examples: “Du Ring an meinem Finger” from Frauenliebe und Leben or “People Will Say We’re in Love” from Oklahoma!)
For New Grove Dictionary entries, determine the author of the article (identified by initials at the end of the article) and use the following format. Include the edition number if using an edition other than the first:
Footnote: The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed. s.v. “Theremin,” by Richard Orton.
Bibliography: Chicago style suggests that dictionaries and encyclopedias be cited in footnotes. If the article is deemed central to your thesis, you may include it in the bibliography as follows:
The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2nd ed. S.v. “Theremin,” by Richard Orton.
If you wish to cite material from Grove in Oxford Music Online, please use the following format. As with print versions, articles should normally be cited in footnotes only:
1.Grove Music Online, s.v. “Theremin,” (by Richard Orton), http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com (accessed Oct. 5, 2001).
[Note: In the preceding parentheses, enter the date you accessed the source.]
Grove Music Online, S.v. “Theremin,” by Richard Orton. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com (accessed Oct. 5, 2001).
[Note: In the preceding parentheses, enter the date you accessed the source.]
Avoid using first person pronouns — “I,” “me,” etc.
The following are some musical conventions preferred here:
C major (no hyphen, lowercase “major”)
C minor (uppercase key, no hyphen, lowercase “minor”)
D-flat (lowercase “flat”)
Use “theater,” not “theatre”
Use italics for non-English musical instructions
sixteenth-note passage (*sixteenth-note is an adjective in this situation)
subdominant and submediant (one word)
m. 1 = measure 1
mm. 2-6 = measures 2 through 6
op. 3, no. 4 (these abbreviations are preferred)
For further information on abbreviations and musical conventions, see Chapter One in:
Holoman, D. Kern. Writing About Music: A Style Sheet, 2nd ed. Berkley: University of California Press, 2008.
This book is available in the reference section of the main library and in full-text on Ebrary.
In musical examples, make sure to give credit to the composer in each example
and indicate the work and measure number. If all examples are by the same
composer and from the same work, this could be indicated in a footnote. Then,
composer and work could be omitted from each succeeding note:
Example 1. Brahms, “Vergebliches Ständchen,” mm. 5-9.
Musical examples are numbered consecutively throughout the paper — do not
begin numbering again in new chapters as with footnotes.
Check your reference guide with regard to numbers (i.e., whether to use numerals
or to spell out).
(Sample title page)
TITLE OF RECITAL PAPER
Oklahoma City University
Date (Month and year only)
This paper is presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Master of Music Degree in_________________
(Sample signature page)
Approved by the Graduate Committee
(These should appear in alphabetical order by last name, and the title “Professor” is used with each.)
Instructions from the music office about pre-submission
The students will leave four copies of the paper (printed on the good paper) and the thesis submission form on Susannah’s desk in the office of the dean.
Faculty will sign all five documents in that location.
Frequently Asked Questions
Where can I find a copy of the thesis submission form?
The official copy of the form is on the Registrar here:
What papers or projects are included?
Complete, university-wide official requirements for the submission are included in the graduate catalog for the year you began your program.
Additional requirements are available in the style sheets provided by your programs. (Contact your advisor for more information.)
Your advisor must sign off that your completed project meets these guidelines:
Rules for the citation of bibliographic, multimedia, and Web resources for this Turabian Citation Guide have been taken from Kate L. Turabian, A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers, 7th ed., rev. by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, Joseph M. Williams, and University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff, Chicago Guides to Writing, Editing, and Publishing (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007). This guide will use examples that are cited in "bibliography" style. Remember, for your papers you will need to have footnotes and you will have to cite those footnotes in footnote style. Consult the online Turabian guide below for identifying the differences between bibliography and footnote formatting or look in chapters 16 and 17 of the Turabian guide.
Rules for citing books can be simple or complex, depending on the resource. Some books have one author, a simple title, aren't part of any series or multi-volume publication, and have only been published once. Others have authors, editors, translators, series titles, multiple volumes, and exist in multiple editions, including reprints. Sometimes you may wish to cite only a specific chapter or portion of a particular book. Most possibilities are covered in the examples in Turabian 17.1 and in the following examples. Please refer to Turabian for further clarification.
One author (Turabian 17.1.1)
Lahee, Henry C. Famous Singers of To-day and Yesterday. Boston: L. C. Page, 1898.
Multiple authors (Turabian 17.1.1); Special elements in titles: exclamation points (Turabian 17.1.2)
Carson, Mina, Tisa Lewis, and Susan M. Shaw. Girls Rock! Fifty Years of Women Making Music. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2004.
Translation (Turabian 17.1.1 and 17.1.2)
Adorno, Theodor W. Philosophy of New Music. Translated and edited by Robert Hullot-Kentor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006.
If you need to cite both the original and a translation, use one of the following types.
Adorno, Theodor W. Philosophie der neuen Musik. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1976. Translated and edited by Robert Hullot-Kentor as Philosophy of New Music (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006).
Adorno, Theodor W. Philosophy of New Music. Translated and edited by Robert Hullot-Kentor. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2006. Originally published as Philosophie der neuen Musik (Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp, 1976).
Edition: revised editions (Turabian 17.1.3)
Simms, Bryan R. Music of the Twentieth Century: Style and Structure. 2d ed. Belmont, CA: Schirmer/Thomson Learning, 1996.
Reprint editions (Turabian 17.1.3); Older title (Turabian 17.1.2)
Burney, Charles. An Account of the Musical Performances in Westminster-Abbey, and the Pantheon, May 26th, 27th, 29th; and June the 3d, and 5th, 1784. In Commemoration of Handel. London, 1785. Reprint in Da Capo Press Music Reprint Series, edited by Bea Friedland. New York: Da Capo Press, 1979.
Volume: specific volume (Turabian 17.1.4)
Taruskin, Richard. The Nineteenth Century. Vol. 3 of The Oxford History of Western Music. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Volume: multivolume work as a whole (Turabian 17.1.4); Title: non-English titles (Turabian 17.1.2)
Duneton, Claude. Histoire de la chanson française. 2 vols. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1998.
Book in a series (Turabian 17.1.5)
Glinsky, Albert. Theremin: Ether Music and Espionage. Music in American Life. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 2000.
Book in a series with series editor (Turabian 17.1.5)
Freedman, Richard. The Chansons of Orlando di Lasso and Their Protestant Listeners: Music, Piety, and Print in Sixteenth-Century France. Eastman Studies in Music, edited by Ralph P. Locke. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2001.
Chapters and other titled parts of a book: parts of edited collections: Festschriften (Turabian 17.1.8); Titles: non-English titles (Turabian 17.1.2)
Ringer, Alexander L. "Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen. Allusion und Zitat in der musikalischen Erzählung Gustav Mahlers." In Das musikalische Kunstwerk: Geschichte, Ästhetik, Theorie; Festschrift Carl Dahlhaus zum 60. Geburtstag, edited by H. Danuser, H. de la Motte-Haber, S. Leopold, and N. Miller, 589-602. Laaber, Germany: Laaber, 1988.
Chapters and other titled parts of a book: parts of single-author books (Turabian 17.1.8); Title and quotations within titles (Turabian 17.1.2, cf. 17.2.2)
Kerman, Joseph. "Ethnomusicology and 'Cultural Musicology'." In Contemplating Music: Challenges to Musicology, 155-181. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985.
Chapters and other titled parts of a book: parts of edited collections (Turabian 17.1.8)
Escriván, Julio d'. "Electronic Music and the Moving Image." In The Cambridge Companion to Electronic Music, edited by Nick Collins and Julio d'Escriván, 156-70. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
Chapters and other titled parts of a book: parts of edited collections (17.1.8); Volume: specific volume (Turabian 17.1.4)
Sherlaw-Johnson, Robert. "Analysis and the Composer." In Companion to Contemporary Musical Thought, edited by John Paynter, Tom Howell, Richard Orton, and Peter Seymour, 2:715-35. London: Routledge, 1992.
Works in anthologies (17.1.8)
Zarlino, Gioseffo. Excerpt from bk. 3 of Istitutioni harmoniche. 1558. Translated by Oliver Strunk. In Source Readings in Music History, rev. ed., edited by Oliver Strunk and Leo Treitler, 436-57. New York: W. W. Norton, 1998.
Letters and other communications in published collections (Turabian 17.1.9)
Mendelssohn, Felix. Felix Mendelssohn to [Frédéric] Chopin, Leipzig, March 28, 1836. In Selected Correspondence of Fryderyk Chopin: Abridged from Fryderyk Chopin's Correspondence, collected and annotated by Bronislaw Edward Sydow, translated and edited by Arthur Hedley, no. 97. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1963.
Combining Citation Formats
Chapter 17 of the Turabian manual provides models for many different types of publications. Turabian, however does not give guidelines for publications that may combine these styles. For example, a reprint may be published as part of a series. A separately authored article or essay may be published in a book that is a separately titled volume in a multi-volume set or that is part of a series. Such combinations are typical in the complete works of composers published as a set. Some possible models are given below. A multi-volume work published in a reprint series. Combine 17.1.3 with 17.1.4.
Chorley, Henry. Thirty Years' Musical Recollections, 2 vols. London: Hurst and Blackett, Publishers, 1862. Reprint in Da Capo Press Music Reprint Series. New York: Da Capo, 1984.
A separately titled book that is part of a multi-volume set that is also part of a series. Combine 17.1.4 and 17.1.5.
Fellerer, Karl Gustav. Studien zur Musik des 19. Jahrhunderts. Band 2, Kirchenmusik im 19. Jahrhundert. Studien zur Musikgeschichte des 19. Jahrhunderts, Band 60. Regensburg: Gustav Bosse Verlag, 1985.
An article in a separately titled book that is part of a multi-volume set. Combine 17.1.4 and 17.1.8.
Ott, Alfons. "Von der frühdeutschen Oper zum deutschen Singspiel." In Musik in Bayern. Vol. 1., Bayerische Musikgeschichte: Überblick und Einzeldarstellungen, ed. Robert Münster and Hans Schmid, 165-77. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1972.
An article in a separately titled book that is part of a multi-volume set, with a named editor for the set. Combine 17.1.4 and 17.1.8.
Finscher, Ludwig, and Silke Leopold. "Volkssprachige Gattungen und Instrumentalmusik." In Neues Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft. Edited by Carl Dahlhaus. Band 3, Die Musik des 15. und 16. Jahrhunderts, ed. Ludwig Finscher, 2:437-605. Laaber: Laaber-Verlag, 1990.
A separately titled article in a book edited by another that is part of a series. Combine 17.1.8 with 17.1.5.
Buelow, George J. "A Bach Borrowing by Gluck: Another Frontier." In Eighteenth-Century Music in Theory and Practice: Essays in Honor of Alfred Mann, ed. Mary Ann Parker, 187-203. Festschrift Series, No. 13. Stuyvesant, N.Y.: Pendragon Press, 1994.
A score published in a set with multiple subsets and editors. Combine 17.1.4 with 17.1.7.
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus. "Sinfonie in D, KV 81(731)." In Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke. Edited by the Internationalen Stiftung Mozarteum Salzburg. Serie IV, Orchesterwerke. Werkgruppe 11, Sinfonien. Band 2, 3-14. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1985.
Bach, Johann Sebastian. "Sonate e-Moll für Violino und Continuo, BWV 1023." Edited by Günter Hausswald. In Johann Sebastian Bach: Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke. Edited by Johann Sebastian Bach Institut, Göttingen and Bach Archive, Leipzig. Serie VI, Kammermusikwerke. Band 1, Werke für Violine, 71-80. Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1958.
A published score to a separate work originally published in a multi-volume set and reprinted in a set with separately titled volumes in multiple subsets with multiple editors. Combine 17.1.3, 17.1.4 and 17.1.8.
Boyce, William. "The Song of Diana in Mr. Dryden's Secular Masque [With Horns and with Hounds I Waken the Day]." In Lyra Britannica: Being a Collection of Songs, Duets, and Cantatas, on Various Subjects, 1:1-5. London: I. Walsh, . Facsimile reprint in Music for London Entertainment 1660-1800. Series F, Music of the Pleasure Gardens, ed. Christopher Hogwood. Vol. 3, William Boyce: Lyra Britannica. With an introduction by Robert J. Bruce. Tunbridge Wells: Richard Macnutt, 1985.
A published score to a separate work originally published in a multi-volume set with multiple subsets and reprinted in a series with sub-series. Combine 17.1.3, 17.1.4, 17.1.5 and 17.1.8.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. "Sonate für das Pianoforte, Op. 90." In Ludwig van Beethoven's Werke. Series 16, Sonaten für das Pianoforte, Band 3, No. 150. Leipzig: Breitkopf & Härtel, n.d. Reprint in Edward Music Reprints. Series A, Complete Works and Monumenta. No. 2, Ludwig van Beethoven's Werke. Ann Arbor, Michigan: J. W. Edwards, 1949.
A manuscript score reproduced in a facsimile that is part of a multi-volume set. Combine 17.1.3, 17.1.4, 17.1.8 and 17.6.4.
[Dowland, John]. "Flow My Teares Fall from Yo'r Springs." Manuscript score. Oxford, Christ Church Ms. 439, [pp.] 6-7. Facsimile reprint in English Song 1600-1675: Facsimiles of Twenty-six Manuscripts and an Edition of the Texts. Edited with introductions by Elise Bickford Jorgens. Vol. 6, Manuscripts at Oxford, Part I. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1987.
Articles in Journals
Journals are sometimes referred to as periodicals because they are published at stated intervals such as weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc. Because journals are published at intervals they usually include volume and issue indications. Volumes are generally assigned in sequential numeric order each year. Issue indications may appear as a month, season, or number. Some journals assign a sequential issue number to each issue and do not specify a yearly volume number. Other journals may specify a volume and designate both a month or season as well as a issue number. Readers might not need all of these elements to locate an article in a particular journal, but including as many as possible will help guard against possible error. Use the following guidelines to create your citations. See Turabian 17.2 for more details. If the journal indicates volume, issue number, month, and year, follow this model:
Porter, Andrew. "New Productions at the Metropolitan Opera." Opera News 56, no. 7 (July 1989): 112-32.
If the journal gives only an issue number with no volume reference follow this model:
Harwood, James. "Romantic Imagery in Schumann's Operas." Current Musicology, no. 57 (1978): 57-78.
If the journal or magazine gives a full date including day, month and year, cite the journal by the date. Do not include any reference to volume and issue even if they appear on the journal. Since magazine articles often have irregular pagination, you may omit the article's inclusive page numbers in a bibiliography. See Turabian 17.3.
Fricke, David. "Louder Faster Stronger." Rolling Stone, October 2, 2008.
Articles Published Online
Citing articles found in online journals is identical to the way you would cite the same article in a print journal, except that you must add the URI (Uniform Resource Identifier) and the date you accessed the article.
Dolp, Laura. "Between Pastoral and Nature: Beethoven's Missa Solemnis and the Landscapes of Caspar David Friedrich." Journal of Musicological Research 22, no. 3 (July 2008): 205-25. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/section?content=a901740941&fulltext=713240928 (accessed December 5, 2008).
Online journals might not employ page numbers if they do not have a print equivalent; use a descriptive locator (such as a subheading) to identify the location of a cited passage, using the word "under" before the URI. See Turabian 17.2.7 for more details.
Greenbaum, Matthew. "From Revolutionary to Normative: A Secret History of Dada and Surrealism in American Music." NewMusicBox, July 10, 2008. Under "The Seeds for a Normative Dada." http://www.newmusicbox.org/article.nmbx?id=5632 (accessed December 8, 2008).
Online databases of articles usually list all the necessary information for citations. Use the URI that identifies the database consulted.
Alden, Jane. "Excavating Chansonniers: Musical Archaeology and the Search for Popular Song." Journal of Musicology - A Quarterly Review of Music History, Criticism, Analysis, and Performance Practice 25, no. 1 (Winter 2008): 46-86. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl?url_ver=Z39.88-2004&res_dat=xri:iimp:&rft_dat=xri:iimp:article:citation:iimp00635723 (accessed December 5, 2008).
Articles in Music Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
Normally, encyclopedias should only be cited in notes. If you are citing substantial articles from a major music dictionary such as The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, you may use a format that begins with the name of the author of the article. See Turabian 17.5.3 for more details.
Strickland, Edward. "Glass, Philip." In The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, 2d ed, edited by Stanley Sadie. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001.
Randel, Don Michael, ed. The Harvard Dictionary of Music. 4th ed. S.v. "Lied". Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003.
Citing Grove Music Online requires a different citation format that includes the URI and the date the material was accessed.
Strickland, Edward. "Glass, Philip." In Grove Music Online, ed. Laura Macy. Oxford Music Online. http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/11262 (accessed December 8, 2008).
Cite a published musical score the same way as you would a book. See Turabian 17.8.7 for more details.
Berlioz, Hector. Fantastic Symphony: An Authoritative Score, Historical Background, Analysis, Views and Comments. Edited by Edward T. Cone. Norton Critical Scores. New York: W. W. Norton, 1971.
Verdi, Giuseppe. La traviata (melodramma in three acts). Libretto by Francesco Maria Piave. Edited by Fabrizio Della Seta. 2 vols. In The Works of Giuseppe Verdi, edited by Philip Gossett. Series 1, Operas. Vol. 19. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Milan: G. Ricordi, 1996.
List recordings under the title of the recording or under the name of the composer or performer, depending on what element is most important for your paper. Include media format, name of record company, identifying number from the publisher, and publishing and/or copyright date, or both. See Turabian 17.8.4 for more details. Item indexed by composer:
Bach, Johann Sebastian. Concerto no. 1 in F major, BWV 1046. In Brandenburg Concertos nos. 1-6. Tafelmusik; conducted by Jeanne Lamon. Vivarte. Sony Classical S2K 66289. CD. 1994.
Davis, Miles. Kind of Blue. Columbia Jazz Masterpieces. Columbia CK 40579. CD. Recorded 1959.
Item indexed by performer:
Kronos Quartet. String Quartet no. 2, by Alfred Schnittke. In The Complete String Quartets. Nonesuch 79500-2. CD. 1998.
Rutter, John, dir. Christmas Night: Carols of the Nativity. Cambridge Singers; City of London Sinfonia. Collegium Records COLCD 106. CD. 1987.
Videorecording citations are constructed similar to book citations, with the addition of the medium (VHS, DVD, laserdisc). Cite videorecordings under the the title of the work, or the name(s) of the composer, performer, director, or actor(s), depending on what element is most important for your paper. See Turabian 17.8.5 for more details. Item indexed by composer:
Wagner, Richard. Die Walküre. DVD. Peter Hofmann, Matti Salminen, Donald McIntyre, Jeannine Altmeyer, Gwyneth Jones, Hanna Schwarz, soloists; Bayreuther Festspiele; conducted by Pierre Boulez; produced by Patrice Chéreau. Munich: Unitel, 1980; Germany: Philips, 1998.
Beethoven, Ludwig van. Symphony 9 "Choral". Disc 1. Symphonies 3 & 9. DVD. Karita Mattila, Violeta Urmana, Thomas Moser, Eike Wilm Schulte, soloists; Swedish Radio Choir; Eric Ericson Chamber Choir; Berliner Philharmoniker; conducted by Claudio Abbado; directed by Bob Coles. N.p.: EuroArts Music International, 2002.
Glass, Philip, comp. Koyaanisqatsi: Life Out of Balance. DVD. Produced and directed by Godfrey Reggio. N.p.: Institute for Regional Education, 1983; Santa Monica, CA: MGM, 2002.
Item indexed by performer(s) or actor(s):
Wood, Natalie, Richard Beymer, Russ Tamblyn, Rita Moreno, and George Chakiris. West Side Story, special edition. DVD. Directed by Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins; music by Leonard Bernstein; lyrics by Stephen Sondheim. N.p.: Mirisch Pictures, 1961; Santa Monica, CA: MGM, 2003.
Gillespie, Dizzy. Dizzy Gillespie: Live in '58 & '70. DVD. Produced by David Peck and Phillip Galloway. Jazz Icons Series. Ratingen, Germany: Reelin' In The Years Productions, 2006.
Websites and Blogs
Websites often lack standard elements of publication (no dates, no title, no publisher, sometimes no author). Citing the URI is also problematic because web content can change rapidly, and older versions of Web pages disappear. Citations for websites and blogs should include as much information as possible: author (if known), title of Web page or blog entry, website or blog title, URI, and date accessed. If there is no named author, give the name of the website owner. If the Web page you wish to cite has no official title, you may use a descriptive phrase of your own invention. See Turabian 17.7.1-17.7.2 for more details. Web pages
National Association for Music Education (MENC). "National Standards for Music Education." http://www.menc.org/resources/view/national-standards-for-music-education (accessed December 8, 2008).
Celenza, Anna. "Music Books for Children." American Musicological Society. http://www.ams-net.org/childrens-lit/index.php (accessed December 8, 2008).
Blake, William. "William Blake Digital Materials from the Lessing J. Rosenwald Collection." Library of Congress Rare Book & Special Collections Division. http://www.loc.gov/rr/rarebook/rosenwald-blake.html (accessed December 8, 2008).
Ross, Alex. "20th-Century Agenda: Messiaen." Alex Ross: The Rest Is Noise. Entry posted October 3, 2008. http://www.therestisnoise.com/2008/10/20th-century-ag.html (accessed December 8, 2008).
Eddins, Stephen. "An Inconvenient Truth--the Opera." Allmusic: the Allmusic Blog. Entry posted June 3, 2008. http://blog.allmusic.com/2008/06/03/an-inconvenient-truth-the-opera/ (accessed December 8, 2008).
Theses and Dissertations
Theses and dissertations are considered unpublished documents, and have a slightly different form of citation than books or journal articles. After the author and title, this citation format requires the kind of thesis, the academic institution awarding the degree, and the year completed. See Turabian 17.6.1 for more details.
Johnson, Steven Phillip. "Tonal and Motivic Structures in Mahler's Third Symphony." PhD diss., University of California at Los Angeles, 1989.
Nordstrom, Steven Scott. "Philippe de Monte, Sonetz de Pierre de Ronsard, mis en musique a cinq, six, et sept parties (1575): a Critical Edition." Master's thesis, Brigham Young University, 2005.
If citing a dissertation found in an online database, add the name of the database, the URI, and the date accessed to the citation:
Day, David A. "The Annotated Violon Repetiteur and Early Romantic Ballet at the Theatre Royal de Bruxelles (1815-1830)." PhD diss., New York University, 2007. In ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, http://proquest.umi.com/pqdweb?did=1546808041&sid=5&Fmt=2&clientId=9338&RQT=309&VName=PQD (accessed December 5, 2008).
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